Who is a consumer?

Last updated on Jun 7, 2022

Consumers are people who(( Section 2(7), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.)) buy and use goods or services.  Consumers have a right to file a complaint for any of the services or goods used by them:

Person buying and using goods and services

A consumer includes any person who buys goods and services, as well as anyone who uses them. For instance, a person who watches a movie after buying a movie ticket is a consumer and similarly, a person who uses a gift voucher gifted from someone else  is also a consumer.

Person using goods for self-employment, and not for commercial purposes

The consumer protection law does not apply to people who use goods and services for commercial purposes. However, there are some exceptions to this. For example, a person who buys large machines for using it in their business, is not a ‘consumer’. However, people who use goods for self-employment are considered as consumers(( Section 2(7)(i), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.)).  For example, artists who buy art supplies for their work or beauticians who buy beauty products are consumers.

Person using online facilities

A consumer also includes any person who buys or hires goods or services online. For example, if you order from an online clothes website, you are a consumer.(( Explanation (b), Section 2(7), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.))

People facing issues related to food

Consumers also include people who may be facing issues related to food items, such as adulteration, poor quality, lack of service, etc.(( Section 2(21), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.)) For instance, issues related to food can cover problems across a wide range of products, starting from water that goes into the production of items like  juices as well as the sale of animals like chicken, mutton etc. that are expressly intended for human consumption(( Section 3(j), Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006.))


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