Can I get leave if I had a miscarriage, abortion or a tubectomy operation?

If you have had a miscarriage or an abortion then upon showing proof of the same, you will be entitled to leave and payment at the rate of maternity benefit for 6 weeks from the date of the miscarriage or abortion. If you have had a tubectomy operation then you get leave with wages for two weeks from the date of your operation. If you have suffered from an illness due to a miscarriage, abortion or tubectomy operation, you will get an additional month of leave with wages.1

  1. Section 9,9A and 10, The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.[]

How do I calculate the number of days I have worked for my employer ?

For the purpose of calculating the days on which a woman has actually worked in the establishment, the days for which she has been laid off or was on holidays declared to be paid  holidays during the period of 12 months immediately preceding the date of her expected delivery shall be taken into account.1

In a case where the factory remained closed during the rainy season, those days were added to the days during which she worked for the purpose of calculation.2 Even in a case where the woman had worked for a few half days, they were counted as full days for the purpose of calculating the total number of days she had worked at the establishment.3

  1. Explanation, Section 5(3), The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961.[]
  2. F.M. Kolia and Ors. Vs. Manager, The Tiles and Pottery Works Ltd. and Ors. (1981) 22 GLR 528.[]
  3. Ram Bahadur Thakur (P) Ltd. Vs. Chief Inspector of Plantations (1989) IILLJ 20 Ker.[]

Can fathers get paternity leave in India?

Employees working in the public sector get certain paternity leave benefits. Male employees with less than 2 surviving children get a leave of 15 days to take care of their newborn/ adopted child.1 A man can avail this leave 15 days before delivery, or within 6 months from the date of delivery of the child. The payment during the leave will be equal to the pay last drawn immediately before proceeding on leave.

However, this concept does not exist for private-sector employees, unless specific companies allow for it. The proposed Paternity Benefit Bill, 2017 seeks to protect the paternity rights of working men, but it has not been passed yet.

  1. Section 551 (A), Central Civil Services (Leave) Rules.[]

What is the maternity benefit under the ESI Act(Employees State Insurance Act, 1948)?

The Employees State Insurance Act, 1948( ESI ) is a law meant to financially support workers when they go through medical distress. Under the ESI law, you are eligible to get periodical payments in terms of maternity benefit. However, you have to work for 70 days to be eligible for maternity benefit. The benefits under the ESI law are as follows:

  • You are entitled to paid maternity benefits for a period of up to 26 weeks. Out of this, the benefits of 8 weeks can be availed before delivery.1
  • The maternity benefit under this law is a “Standard Benefit Rate”. It is the total amount of salary/wages received during a contribution period divided by the total number of days you have worked for or Rs. 25 whichever is higher.
  • The type and time period of the benefits you can avail, if you have undergone miscarriage, abortion or are sick owing to your pregnancy, is the same under this law as it is under the Maternity Benefit Act.
  • If a woman dies during delivery or in the period following her delivery then the same rules as under the Maternity Benefit Act apply.
  • Under this Act, you cannot be dismissed, discharged, or punished while you are receiving maternity benefit.2

You are also entitled to a confinement expense of Rs.5000, provided that the confinement occurs at a place where necessary medical facilities under the ESI Scheme are not available.3

  1. Section 56(2), Employees’ State Insurance (Central) Amendment Rules, 2017.[]
  2. Section 73, Employees State Insurance Act, 1948.[]
  3. Section 56A, Employees’ State Insurance (Central) Amendment Rules, 2017.[]

Can a complaint be filed against an advocate in a consumer court?

A person who is dissatisfied with the services of a lawyer can file a complaint against the advocate in the State Bar Council. The National Consumer Dispute Redressal Commission held in a judgement that lawyers are service providers under the Consumer Protection Act, but this was stayed by the Supreme Court of India in 2009 and still remains pending in the court, so there is no remedy available against an advocate in a consumer court currently.1

  1. Bar of Indian Lawyers Vs. D.K. Gandhi and anr, Special Leave to Appeal (Civil) Nos. 3052/2008[]

Can doctors employed in government services run private clinics?

Doctors appointed by the Central Government under the Central Health Service (CHS) are not allowed to have a private practice of any kind whatsoever including any consultation and laboratory practice.1 CHS was constituted to manage various medical posts under the Central Government, Union Territories and certain other organizations. Presently, it caters to the needs of various participating units like Directorate General of Health Services including the organizations under its control, Central Government Health Scheme, Govt. of NCT of Delhi, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of Finance, Department of Posts etc.2 Officers under CHS are entitled to a Non-Practicing Allowance (NPA) of 20% of Basic Pay subject to the condition that the Basic Pay plus NPA does not exceed ₹ 2,37,500.3

As Health comes under the State list4, information pertaining to the doctors in private practice across the country is not centrally maintained. Each state has different rules of medical practice.5

  1. Central Health Service Rules, 2014, Rule 13, []
  2. Central Health Services, MINISTRY OF FAMILY HEALTH AND WELFARE,[]
  3. Report of the 7th Pay Commission, GOVERNMENT OF INDIA, Pg: 348[]
  4. Sch. 7 List II Entry 6, Constitution of India, 1950.[]
  5. Non-Practicing Allowance Of Doctors In Government Hospitals, GCONNECT, GOVT. EMPLOYEES ONLINE PORTAL,[]

Can an architect solicit/advertise for work?


Architects are generally not allowed to advertise their professional services or let their names be included in any advertisements or forms of publicity. There are a few exceptions to this rule1:

  • He/she can publish a notice of change in address on three occasions and his/her clients can be informed by post.
  • He/she can put his name outside his/her office and on the building for which he/she was an Architect, in a lettering not exceeding 10 cms.
  • He/she can publish advertisements which include the name and address of the Architect for calling of tenders, staff requirements and similar matters.
  • His/her name can be associated with illustrations and descriptions of his work in the press or other public media but he shall not give or accept any payment for such appearances.
  • His/her name can appear in advertisements inserted in the press by suppliers or manufacturers of materials used in a building he has designed, provided his name is included in a pretentious manner and he does not accept any payment for its use.
  • His/her name can appear in brochures prepared by his/her Clients for the purpose of advertising or promoting projects for which he has been hired.
  • He/she can publish brochures, pamphlets describing his/her experience and capabilities for distribution to those potential Clients whom he/she can identify by name and position.
  •  His/her name can appear in the classified columns of the trade / professional directory and/or telephone directory/ website.
  1. Article 2(1) (xvv), Architects (Professional Conduct) Regulations, 1989.[]

How does the law ensure that a doctor does not unfairly favour a Pharmaceutical Company or Allied Health Sector Industry while treating patients?


Indian Medical Council regulations provide measures to ensure that a physician maintains their professional autonomy. It states that the physician or doctor shall not accept anything from any pharmaceutical or allied health sector industry. This includes:1

  • Gifts
  • Travel Facilities
  • Hospitality
  • Cash or monetary grants

Moreover, a medical practitioner shall not endorse any drug or product of the industry in public.

  1. Regulation 6.8, Indian Medical Council (Professional Conduct, Etiquette and Ethics) Regulations, 2002[]

Can advocates take up other employment opportunities other than law?

An Advocate cannot be the full-time employee of any person, firm, government, corporation, or concern. If they still take up such an employment, they would have to bring it to the notice of their respective Bar Council and cease to practice as an advocate for the term of employment.1

Engaging in Business

An advocate cannot personally engage in business, but can be a sleeping partner in a firm. However, the nature of the firm’s business should not be against the dignity of the profession in the opinion of the State Bar Council.2 They cannot be Managing Directors or Secretaries of a company, but can be a part of the Board of Directors, but even then, cannot have executive duties.3

Family Business

If the advocate has inherited any family business, they can go with it, provided that they do not participate personally in the management.4


An advocate may review Parliamentary Bills for a remuneration, edit legal text books at a salary, do press-vetting for newspapers, coach pupils for legal examination, set and examine question papers.

An advocate can engage in broadcasting, journalism, lecturing and teaching subjects, both legal and non-legal. But this will have to be according to the other rules about advertising and full-time employment.5

Taking up part time employment

An Advocate can also take up part-time employment after obtaining the consent of the State Bar Council.6

  1. Rule 49, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]
  2. Rule 47, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]
  3. Rule 48, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]
  4. Rule 50, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]
  5. Rule 51, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]
  6. Rule 52, Chapter II, Part VI, Bar Council of India Rules, 1975.[]

Can advocates be teachers in a law college?

Although Advocates are not allowed to take up employment, they are allowed to teach law in any educational institution under a University recognized by the University Grants Commission. You can find the list of universities here. However, they can only teach in the institution for three hours a day. They will only be considered as a part-time employee of the institution.1

  1. Rule 3, The Advocates (Right to Take up Law Teaching) Rules, 1979.[]