Consumers are people who1 buy and use goods or services. Consumers have a right to file a complaint for any of the services or goods used by them:
Person buying and using goods and services
A consumer includes any person who buys goods and services, as well as anyone who uses them. For instance, a person who watches a movie after buying a movie ticket is a consumer and similarly, a person who uses a gift voucher gifted from someone else is also a consumer.
Person using goods for self-employment, and not for commercial purposes
The consumer protection law does not apply to people who use goods and services for commercial purposes. However, there are some exceptions to this. For example, a person who buys large machines for using it in their business, is not a ‘consumer’. However, people who use goods for self-employment are considered as consumers2. For example, artists who buy art supplies for their work or beauticians who buy beauty products are consumers.
Person using online facilities
A consumer also includes any person who buys or hires goods or services online. For example, if you order from an online clothes website, you are a consumer.3
People facing issues related to food
Consumers also include people who may be facing issues related to food items, such as adulteration, poor quality, lack of service, etc.4 For instance, issues related to food can cover problems across a wide range of products, starting from water that goes into the production of items like juices as well as the sale of animals like chicken, mutton etc. that are expressly intended for human consumption5
- Section 2(7), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
- Section 2(7)(i), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
- Explanation (b), Section 2(7), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
- Section 2(21), Consumer Protection Act, 2019.
- Section 3(j), Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006.